Agustina Engry


The purpose of this research is to find out the effectiveness of pain management psychoeducation to decrease pain on elderly people in the integrated healthcare center X. This study used a quasi experimental research with 25 participants that are members of integrated healthcare center X. The type of quasi experimental designs is one group pretest posttest design. Instrument that used is Geriatric Pain Measure from Ferrell, Stein & Beck (2000) that has adapted to bahasa Indonesia. Data analysis used Paired T Test with sig 0,044 that means there is a significant difference pain score before and after pain management psychoeducation has given.

Save to Mendeley

Full Text:



Berry, P. H., dkk. (2001). Pain: Current Understanding of Assessment, Management, and Treatments. United States of America: National Pharmaceutical Council, INC.

Courtney, R. (2009). The functions of breathing and its dysfunctions and their relationship to breathing therapy. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine 12: 78-85.

Feldman, R. S. (2011). Understanding Psychology 10th edition. New York, United States of America: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Ferrell, B.A., Stein, W.M., Beck, J.C. (2000). The Geriatric Pain Measure: Validity, Reliability and Factor Analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 12: 1669- 1673

Gloth, F. M. (2011). Handbook of Pain Relief in Older Adults: An Evidence-Based Approach 2nd edition. New York, United States of America: Humana Press.

Hoyer, W. J., Rybash, J. M., Roodin, P. A. (1999). Adult Development and Aging 4th edition.

United States of America: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Kopf, A., Patel, N. B. (2010). Guide to Pain Management in Low-Resource Settings. Seattle, United States of America: International Association for the Study of Pain.

Marcus, D. A. (2005). Chronic Pain: A Primary Care Guide to Practical Management. New Jersey, United States of America: Humana Press Inc.

Mertens, D.M. (2015). Research and evaluation in education and psychology 4th edition.

California, United States of America: Sage Publications Ltd.

Otis, J. D. (2007). Managing Chronic Pain: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Approach. New York, United States of America: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Park, E., Oh, H., Kim, T. (2013). The effects of relaxation breathing on procedural pain and anxiety during burn care. Journal of The International Society for Burn Injures 3957.

Santrock, J.W. (2011). Life-Span Development thirteenth edition. New York, United States of America: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Serpell, M. (2009). Handbook of Pain Management. London, United Kingdom: Current Medicine Group.

Sperry, L. (2009). Treatment of Chronic Medical Conditions: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Strategies and Integrative Treatment Protocols. Washington DC, United States of America: American Psychological Association.

Victor, C. (2005). The Social Context of Ageing: A Textbook of Gerontology. New York, United States of America: Routledge.

Wilmoth, J. M., Ferraro, K. F. (2007). Gerontology: Perspectives and Issues. New York, United States of America: Springer Publishing Company, LL.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33508/exp.v6i2.2717