Julius Jose Christofan, Yosef Gerardo Harto Pramono


Speaking is one of the language skills that students, particularly English department students, should develop. In order to master the act of speaking English, students should have a strategy that they can implement. This study explores how students improve their speaking performance while learning English. More particularly, this study explored the strategies students use to develop their speaking performance. A narrative inquiry was employed in this study. Three excelled students in the English department of a private university in Surabaya participated in this study. The results of this study showed various strategies that students used to improve their speaking performance. They included direct strategies consisting of memory, cognitive, and compensation, and indirect strategies consisting of metacognitive, affective, and social strategies. Among these strategies, the compensation strategy was the least used, and the affective strategy was used in all kinds of situations by students who excelled in their speaking performance

Save to Mendeley


speaking; learning strategies; narrative inquiry

Full Text:



Abrar, M. (2019). Re-telling: A narrative inquiry of Indonesian graduate students’ speaking experiences in a United Kingdom university. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(3), 588-596.

Adam, M. A. A. (2016). Role of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Promoting EFL Learners Performance. Sudan University of Science and Technology.

Anastasia. (2022). An Analysis of Learning Strategies in Learning English (Diploma thesis). IKIP PGRI Pontianak.

Barkhuizen, G., Benson, P., & Chik, A. (2013). Narrative inquiry in language teaching and learning research. Routledge.

Burns, A., & Claire, S. (2003). Clearly speaking: pronunciation in action for teachers. Digital or Visual products, National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research (NCELTR), Macquarie University.

Bruce, A., Beuthin, R., Sheilds, L., Molzahn, A., & Schick-Makaroff, K. (2016). Narrative research evolving. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 15(1), 160940691665929.

Caine V., Steeves P., Clandinin D. J., Estefan A., Huber J., Murphy M. S. (2018). Social justice practice: A narrative inquiry perspective. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 13(2), 133–143.

Chuin, T. K., & Kaur, S. (2015). Types of language learning strategies used by Tertiary English majors. TEFLIN Journal - A Publication on the Teaching and Learning of English, 26(1), 17.

Celce-murcia. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Connelly, F. M., & Clandinin, D. J. (1990). Stories of Experience and Narrative Inquiry. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2–14. doi:10.1080/03323315.2018.1465839

Gulyanto, B., Sitompul, H., and Saragih, A. H. (2021). Effect of Group Investigation Model and Cognitive Style on History Learning Outcomes After Controlling Students’ Initial Ability: 6th Annual International Seminar on Transformative Education and Educational Leadership (AISTEEL 2021), Medan, Indonesia.

Harmer,J. (2007). How to Teach English (New Edition). New York: Pearson Education Limited.

Hayriye, Kayi. (2006). Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language. Nevada: University of Nevada.

Heaton, J. B. (1978). The Components of Speaking Ability. Retrieved from componentsof-speaking-ability.html.

Josselson, Ruthellen. (2007). The ethical attitude in narrative research. Handbook of Narrative Inquiry. 537–566. doi: 10.4135/9781452226552.n21.

Lado, R. (1961). Language Teaching: A Scientific Approach. New Delhi: Grow Hill Publishing Company

Lewis, M. (1997) Implementing the lexical approach putting theory into practice. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.

Moleong, L. J. (2007). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Edisi Revisi. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya

Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding second language acquisition. London: Hodder Education.

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publishers.

Pollard, A. (2008). Reflective Teaching. 3rd Edition: Evidence Informed Professional Practice. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Richards. (2008). Teaching Listening and Speaking from Theory to Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2008.

Saputra, E. W., & Subekti, N. B. (2017). a study of the speaking learning strategies used by english education department students. JELLT (Journal of English Language and Language Teaching), 1(1).

Suryadi, H. (2021). An Analysis of Students’ Anxiety in Speaking. NUSRA: Jurnal Penelitian Dan Ilmu Pendidikan, 8(1), 47–53. doi:10.55681/nusra.v2i1.66

Syafryadin S, Martina F, Salniwati S. Compensation strategies in speaking activities for non-English department students: Poor and competent speakers. Journal of English Educators Society, 5(2), 109–116. doi:10.21070/jees.v5i2.819

Thornbury, S. (2005). How to Teach Speaking. United Kingdom: Longman.

Wael, A., Asnur, M. N. A. Ibrahim, I. (2018). Exploring Students’ Learning Strategies in Speaking Performance. International Journal of Language Education. 2. 65. 10.26858/ijole.v2i1.5238.

Welford, M. (2013). The Power of Self-compassion: Using Compassion-focussed Therapy to End Self-Criticism and Build Self-confidence. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Xinghua. (2007). Psychological Problems of Middle-School Students in English Learning.available at: 6126461 4847/. viewed on November 18, 2014

Yuniar, C. R., Astuti, U. P., & Furaidah. (2021). The use of social and affective strategies to improve the 7th graders’ speaking participation and performance. JoLLA: Journal of Language, Literature, and Arts, 1(3), 295–306.